Chandra X-Ray Observatory
Skip to the navigation links
Last modified: 26 October 2016


Introduction to CIAO Tools and Applications

CIAO is a data analysis system written for the needs of users of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Because Chandra data is 4-dimensional (2 spatial, time, energy) and each dimension has many independent elements, CIAO was built to handle N-dimensional data without concern about which particular axes were being analyzed. Also, apart from a few Chandra instrument tools, CIAO is mission independent.

CIAO also needed to be able to filter and project the 4-D Chandra event data to managable sizes and convenient arrays. This has to be done flexibly, so we have built all CIAO tools to take a filtering and binning specification on the command line, making use of a general-purpose regions syntax.

Since Chandra data can be sliced and diced in so many ways, and because the Chandra calibration is spatially and energy dependent, we needed to keep track of just how the data had been filtered and binned, which we do in a "data subspace". The tools keep track of this subspace automatically and allow users to review previous data processing.

The CIAO design allows close interconnection of tools. For example, the output of any of the source DETECT programs can be fed into dmextract to create a summed spectrum which can then be fit in Sherpa.

The modeling and fitting tool Sherpa is central to the CIAO system. Sherpa performs forward fitting of models to data in N dimensions. The Sherpa website has information on how to use this application.

The Chandra plotting tool ChIPS provides high-quality screen and hardcopy plots from both interactive and scriptable interfaces. The ChIPS website has information on how to use this application. ChIPS includes a GUI for modifying visualizations; see the Starting ChIPS for information on using the GUI.

In order to allow users of Chandra data to use pre-existing tools, all CIAO tools read and write several formats, including FITS images and tables (which includes event files) and IRAF imh files.

Altogether CIAO is a powerful system for the analysis of many types of data.

Further Information

  • ahelp ahelp: an introduction to the CIAO on-line help system.
  • Use "about <keyword>" for a list of subjects related to your query (i.e. whatever value you use for <keyword>).
  • ahelp -c tools: a list of the tools in CIAO.
  • ahelp dm: an introduction to the CIAO Data Model.
  • ahelp gui: an introduction to the graphical user interfaces available within CIAO.

Last modified: 26 October 2016
Smithsonian Institute Smithsonian Institute

The Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) is operated for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.   Email: Smithsonian Institution, Copyright © 1998-2016. All rights reserved.