Chandra X-Ray Observatory
Skip to the navigation links
Last modified: December 2015

Jump to: Description · Bugs · See Also

AHELP for CIAO 4.9 Sherpa v1


Context: models


Simple reflection model good up to 15 keV. XSPEC model.


A simple multiplicative reflection model due to Tahir Yaqoob.

This is a multiplicative model component.

xshrefl Parameters

Number Name Description
1 thetamin minimum angle (degrees) between source photons incident on the slab and the slab normal (=arctan(Ri/H)
2 thetamax maximum angle (degrees) between source photons incident on the slab and the slab normal (=arctan(Ro/H).
3 thetaobs angle (degrees) between the observer's line of sight and the slab normal.
4 feabun iron abundance relative to Solar
5 fekedge iron K-edge energy
6 escfrac fraction of the direct flux seen by the observer
7 covfac normalization of the reflected continuum
8 redshift redshift, z

This model gives the reflected X-ray spectrum from a cold, optically thick, circular slab with inner and outer radii Ri and Ro respectively, illuminated by a point source a height H above the centre of the slab. The main difference between this and other reflection models is that analytic approximations are used for the Chandrasekar H functions (and their integrals) and ELASTIC SCATTERING is assumed (see Basko 1978, ApJ, 223, 268). The elastic scattering approximation means that the model is ONLY VALID UP TO ~ 15 keV in the source frame. Future enhancements will include fudge factors which will allow extension up to 100 keV. The fact that no integration is involved at any point makes the routine very fast and particularly suitable for generating error contours, especially when fitting a large number of data channels.The model is multiplicative so can be used with ANY incident continuum.

Suppose the incident photon spectrum is N(E) photons/cm/cm/s/keV and that the incident continuum is steady in time and further that the reflected continuum from the slab is R(E). When you multiply the incident spectrum with HREFL, what you actually get is

M(E) = escfrac * N(E) + covfac * R(E)

Thus, the actual physical situation described above corresponds to Escfrac=1.0 and covfac=1.0. You may decide to float Escfrac and/or covfac. In that case, you must decide for your particular case what the best-fitting values of these parameters mean physically. It may imply time-lags between the direct and reflected components, different source and/or disk geometries to those assumed or something else.

XSPEC version

This information is taken from the XSPEC User's Guide. Version 12.9.0o of the XSPEC models is supplied with CIAO 4.9.


For a list of known bugs and issues with the XSPEC models, please visit the XSPEC bugs page.

To check the X-Spec version used by Sherpa, use the get_xsversion routine from the xspec module:

sherpa> from sherpa.astro.xspec import get_xsversion
sherpa> get_xsversion()

See Also

absorptionedge, absorptiongaussian, absorptionlorentz, absorptionvoigt, accretiondisk, atten, bbody, bbodyfreq, beta1d, beta2d, blackbody, box1d, box2d, bpl1d, bremsstrahlung, brokenpowerlaw, ccm, const1d, const2d, cos, delta1d, delta2d, dered, devaucouleurs2d, disk2d, edge, emissiongaussian, emissionlorentz, emissionvoigt, erf, erfc, exp, exp10, fm, gauss1d, gauss2d, hubblereynolds, jdpileup, linebroad, list_model_components, list_models, lmc, load_xscflux, load_xsgsmooth, load_xsireflect, load_xskdblur, load_xskdblur2, load_xskerrconv, load_xslsmooth, load_xspartcov, load_xsrdblur, load_xsreflect, load_xssimpl, load_xszashift, load_xszmshift, log, log10, logabsorption, logemission, logparabola, lorentz1d, lorentz2d, models, normbeta1d, normgauss1d, normgauss2d, opticalgaussian, poisson, polynom1d, polynom2d, polynomial, powerlaw, powlaw1d, recombination, scale1d, scale2d, schechter, seaton, sersic2d, shell2d, sigmagauss2d, sin, sm, smc, sqrt, stephi1d, steplo1d, tablemodel, tan, xgal, xs, xsabsori, xsacisabs, xsagauss, xsapec, xsbapec, xsbbody, xsbbodyrad, xsbexrav, xsbexriv, xsbkn2pow, xsbknpower, xsbmc, xsbremss, xsbvapec, xsbvvapec, xsc6mekl, xsc6pmekl, xsc6pvmkl, xsc6vmekl, xscabs, xscemekl, xscevmkl, xscflow, xscompbb, xscompls, xscompmag, xscompps, xscompst, xscomptb, xscompth, xscomptt, xsconstant, xsconvolve, xscplinear, xscutoffpl, xscyclabs, xsdisk, xsdiskbb, xsdiskir, xsdiskline, xsdiskm, xsdisko, xsdiskpbb, xsdiskpn, xsdust, xsedge, xseplogpar, xseqpair, xseqtherm, xsequil, xsexpabs, xsexpdec, xsexpfac, xsezdiskbb, xsgabs, xsgadem, xsgaussian, xsgnei, xsgrad, xsgrbm, xsheilin, xshighecut, xskerrbb, xskerrd, xskerrdisk, xslaor, xslaor2, xslogpar, xslorentz, xslyman, xsmeka, xsmekal, xsmkcflow, xsnei, xsnotch, xsnpshock, xsnsa, xsnsagrav, xsnsatmos, xsnsmax, xsnsmaxg, xsnsx, xsnteea, xsnthcomp, xsoptxagn, xsoptxagnf, xspcfabs, xspegpwrlw, xspexmon, xspexrav, xspexriv, xsphabs, xsplabs, xsplcabs, xsposm, xspowerlaw, xspshock, xspwab, xsraymond, xsredden, xsredge, xsrefsch, xsrnei, xssedov, xssirf, xssmedge, xsspexpcut, xsspline, xssrcut, xssresc, xssss_ice, xsstep, xsswind1, xstbabs, xstbgrain, xstbvarabs, xsuvred, xsvapec, xsvarabs, xsvbremss, xsvequil, xsvgadem, xsvgnei, xsvmcflow, xsvmeka, xsvmekal, xsvnei, xsvnpshock, xsvphabs, xsvpshock, xsvraymond, xsvrnei, xsvsedov, xsvvapec, xsvvgnei, xsvvnei, xsvvnpshock, xsvvpshock, xsvvrnei, xsvvsedov, xswabs, xswndabs, xsxion, xszagauss, xszbabs, xszbbody, xszbremss, xszdust, xszedge, xszgauss, xszhighect, xszigm, xszpcfabs, xszphabs, xszpowerlw, xszredden, xszsmdust, xsztbabs, xszvarabs, xszvfeabs, xszvphabs, xszwabs, xszwndabs, xszxipcf

Last modified: December 2015
Smithsonian Institute Smithsonian Institute

The Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) is operated for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.   Email: Smithsonian Institution, Copyright © 1998-2017. All rights reserved.