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AHELP for CIAO 4.9 Sherpa v1


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NS H atmosphere model for different g. XSPEC model.


This model provides the spectra emitted from a nonmagnetic hydrogen atmosphere of a neutron star with surface gravitational acceleration g ranging from 1e13 to 1e15 cm/s^2, allowed by equations of state for the neutron star matter (the nsa model gives the spectra calculated for g=2.43e14 cm/s^2). The uniform surface (effective) temperature is in the range of Log T_eff(K) = 5.5 - 6.5. The atmosphere is in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium; sources of heat are well below the atmosphere. The radiative force and electron heat conduction are included in the models, but they are of no importance in the specified ranges of T_eff and g. The model spectra are provided as seen by a distant observer, with allowance for the GR effects.

The neutron star mass M and radius R determine the redshift parameter,


and the gravitational acceleration at the surface,

g=1.33e16*M/R^2/gr cm/s^2,

where M is in units of solar mass, and R is in km.

The allowed domain in the M-R plane corresponds to gr^2 > 1/3 and 1e13 < g < 1e15 cm/s^2. If chosen M and R values correspond to g_r or/and g values outside the allowed domain, then the code sets the latter to be the closest limiting values (e.g., if one chooses M=2, R=8, then the code will use g_r=3^-1/2=0.578 instead of g_r=0.512 corresponding to the M and R chosen), which would lead to unphysical results.

The values of the effective temperature and radius as measured by a distant observer ("values at infinity") are:

T^Inf = g_r*T_eff
R^Inf = R/g_r

The nsagrav model may be useful for putting constraints on M and R from spectral fits to thermal emission detected from neutron stars, provided the quality of the observational data are good enough to warrant a detailed analysis. The parameters M and R can be fixed at specific values or allowed to vary within a reasonable range (see the note above). For example, one can run spectral fits on a M-R grid (using the reg_proj() command) within the allowed parameter domain (see above).

Please send your comments/questions (if any) to Slava Zavlin ( and/or George Pavlov ( If you publish results obtained using this model please reference Zavlin et al. (1996, A&A 315, 141).

This is an additive model component.

xsnsagrav Parameters

Number Name Description
1 LogT_eff (unredshifted) effective temperature
2 NSmass neutron star gravitational mass (in units of Solar mass)
3 NSrad "true" neutron star radius (km)
4 norm K; 1/D^2 where D is the distance to the object in pc

XSPEC version

This information is taken from the XSPEC User's Guide. Version 12.9.0o of the XSPEC models is supplied with CIAO 4.9.


For a list of known bugs and issues with the XSPEC models, please visit the XSPEC bugs page.

To check the X-Spec version used by Sherpa, use the get_xsversion routine from the xspec module:

sherpa> from sherpa.astro.xspec import get_xsversion
sherpa> get_xsversion()

See Also

absorptionedge, absorptiongaussian, absorptionlorentz, absorptionvoigt, accretiondisk, atten, bbody, bbodyfreq, beta1d, beta2d, blackbody, box1d, box2d, bpl1d, bremsstrahlung, brokenpowerlaw, ccm, const1d, const2d, cos, delta1d, delta2d, dered, devaucouleurs2d, disk2d, edge, emissiongaussian, emissionlorentz, emissionvoigt, erf, erfc, exp, exp10, fm, gauss1d, gauss2d, hubblereynolds, jdpileup, linebroad, list_model_components, list_models, lmc, load_xscflux, load_xsgsmooth, load_xsireflect, load_xskdblur, load_xskdblur2, load_xskerrconv, load_xslsmooth, load_xspartcov, load_xsrdblur, load_xsreflect, load_xssimpl, load_xszashift, load_xszmshift, log, log10, logabsorption, logemission, logparabola, lorentz1d, lorentz2d, models, normbeta1d, normgauss1d, normgauss2d, opticalgaussian, poisson, polynom1d, polynom2d, polynomial, powerlaw, powlaw1d, recombination, scale1d, scale2d, schechter, seaton, sersic2d, shell2d, sigmagauss2d, sin, sm, smc, sqrt, stephi1d, steplo1d, tablemodel, tan, xgal, xs, xsabsori, xsacisabs, xsagauss, xsapec, xsbapec, xsbbody, xsbbodyrad, xsbexrav, xsbexriv, xsbkn2pow, xsbknpower, xsbmc, xsbremss, xsbvapec, xsbvvapec, xsc6mekl, xsc6pmekl, xsc6pvmkl, xsc6vmekl, xscabs, xscemekl, xscevmkl, xscflow, xscompbb, xscompls, xscompmag, xscompps, xscompst, xscomptb, xscompth, xscomptt, xsconstant, xsconvolve, xscplinear, xscutoffpl, xscyclabs, xsdisk, xsdiskbb, xsdiskir, xsdiskline, xsdiskm, xsdisko, xsdiskpbb, xsdiskpn, xsdust, xsedge, xseplogpar, xseqpair, xseqtherm, xsequil, xsexpabs, xsexpdec, xsexpfac, xsezdiskbb, xsgabs, xsgadem, xsgaussian, xsgnei, xsgrad, xsgrbm, xsheilin, xshighecut, xshrefl, xskerrbb, xskerrd, xskerrdisk, xslaor, xslaor2, xslogpar, xslorentz, xslyman, xsmeka, xsmekal, xsmkcflow, xsnei, xsnotch, xsnpshock, xsnsa, xsnsatmos, xsnsmax, xsnsmaxg, xsnsx, xsnteea, xsnthcomp, xsoptxagn, xsoptxagnf, xspcfabs, xspegpwrlw, xspexmon, xspexrav, xspexriv, xsphabs, xsplabs, xsplcabs, xsposm, xspowerlaw, xspshock, xspwab, xsraymond, xsredden, xsredge, xsrefsch, xsrnei, xssedov, xssirf, xssmedge, xsspexpcut, xsspline, xssrcut, xssresc, xssss_ice, xsstep, xsswind1, xstbabs, xstbgrain, xstbvarabs, xsuvred, xsvapec, xsvarabs, xsvbremss, xsvequil, xsvgadem, xsvgnei, xsvmcflow, xsvmeka, xsvmekal, xsvnei, xsvnpshock, xsvphabs, xsvpshock, xsvraymond, xsvrnei, xsvsedov, xsvvapec, xsvvgnei, xsvvnei, xsvvnpshock, xsvvpshock, xsvvrnei, xsvvsedov, xswabs, xswndabs, xsxion, xszagauss, xszbabs, xszbbody, xszbremss, xszdust, xszedge, xszgauss, xszhighect, xszigm, xszpcfabs, xszphabs, xszpowerlw, xszredden, xszsmdust, xsztbabs, xszvarabs, xszvfeabs, xszvphabs, xszwabs, xszwndabs, xszxipcf

Last modified: December 2015
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